RPAA
Andy Warhol

Catalogue RaisonnÉ Addendum

Fred Hughes

Marilyn Monroe by Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol
Marilyn Thirty-Five Times, 1962
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on canvas
49" x 79"

Provenance:
Private Collection, New York

Literature:
Robert Rauschenberg and Andy Warhol, Us Silkscreeners…
Faurschou Foundation, Venice, page 61 (illustrated), 2017.

Comments:
Marilyn Thirty-Five Times was an experimental painting in which Warhol began to explore repetitive imagery and iconography which reflected the popular culture of the times. Marilyn Thirty-Five Times might be Andy Warhol's first multi-image photosilkscreen painting — possibly preceding Baseball. It also may be the artist's first Celebrity portrait — possibly preceding Natalie (Wood). The image of Marilyn Monroe is based on a shot by the photographer Bert Stern, well-known for his extensive portraiture of the actress. Later in 1962, when Warhol produced his famous series of Marilyn paintings, he turned to a publicity still from the movie Niagara. As future scholars study Marilyn Thirty-Five Times, and reveal its secrets, it's likely it will contribute to our further understanding of Warhol's earliest mature work.

Marilyn Monroe by Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol
Marilyn, 1962
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen
Unsigned
20" x 16"
Note: The same image appears on the reverse on a silver background
Note: The image in the photo is cropped

Provenance:
Si Litvinoff, Watermill, New York (acquired directly from Andy Warhol)

Comments:
Marilyn is part of the classic "Marilyn" series on which Andy Warhol's reputation largely rests. Warhol's first show in New York, which took place at the Stable Gallery in 1962, marked the debut of his Marilyn paintings. It included the iconic Gold Marilyn, which the architect Philip Johnson immediately bought and donated to the Museum of Modern Art. Among the standouts from the show were eight works from Warhol's "Marilyn Flavors." They were selected from a group of fourteen canvases in the sub-series, each measuring 20" x 16". Some of the canvases were named after various candy Life Savers flavors, including Cherry Marilyn, Lemon Marilyn, and Licorice Marilyn. The others are identified by their background colors.

There are a total of three black and white Marilyn Flavors; White Marilyn (plate 253, The Andy Warhol Catalogue Raisonne), Black and White Marilyn (plate 261), and this painting, Marilyn.

Si Litvinoff, the owner of Marilyn, was Andy Warhol's attorney during the 1960s. He acquired Marilyn, along with other paintings, in lieu of payment for legal services. These exchanges were brokered by Paul Morrissey, who not only directed many of Warhol's films, but also served as his de facto office manager during the early Factory years.

Andy Warhol
Colored Campbell's Soup Can (Cream of Tomato), circa 1964
Mixed media on linen
40" x 30"

Provenance:
Private Collection, London (acquired early 1970s)
Rob Donnell, Palm Springs and Varon Bonicos, Oslo, Norway

Comments:
Colored Campbell's Soup Can (Cream of Tomato) was likely an experimental effort that preceded the series of twenty Colored Campbell's Soup Can paintings of 1965 — all of which were Tomato Soup. What's interesting here is how Warhol added the words "Cream of" to the Tomato soup flavor. At the time that this painting was made, Warhol was under siege from Campbell's, who had threatened litigation over the creation of his original red and white Soup Can paintings from 1962. There's a possibility that Warhol added "Cream of" as a way to avoid a direct copyright infringement. With his background in illustration and advertising, Warhol was certainly aware of how copyright laws worked.

The irony is that in 1964 — while Warhol was painting this "Cream of" canvas but before he completed the Colored Soup Cans series — Campbell's determined that Warhol's art was good for business and commissioned a red and white Soup Can painting to hang in the chairman's office.

Andy Warhol
Colored Campbell's Soup Can (Cream of Tomato), circa 1964
Mixed media on linen
40" x 30"

Provenance:
Private Collection, London (acquired possibly from the artist, early 1970s)
Rob Donnell, Palm Springs and Varon Bonicos, Oslo, Norway

Comments:
Colored Campbell's Soup Can (Cream of Tomato) was likely an experimental effort that preceded the series of twenty Colored Campbell's Soup Can paintings of 1965 — all of which were Tomato Soup. What's interesting here is how Warhol added the words "Cream of" to the Tomato soup flavor. At the time that this painting was made, Warhol was under siege from Campbell's, who had threatened litigation over the creation of his original red and white Soup Can paintings from 1962. There's a possibility that Warhol added "Cream of" as a way to avoid a direct copyright infringement. With his background in illustration and advertising, Warhol was certainly aware of how copyright laws worked.

The irony is that in 1964 — while Warhol was painting this "Cream of" canvas but before he completed the Colored Soup Cans series — Campbell's determined that Warhol's art was good for business and commissioned a red and white Soup Can painting to hang in the chairman's office.

Andy Warhol
Little Electric Chair (salmon), 1964-1965
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen
24" x 31"
Signed

Provenance:
Leonard and Ruth Horwich, Chicago (acquired circa 1972)
Karen Lennox, Chicago

Comments:
There are a number of genuine Andy Warhol Little Electric Chairs, which are not included in the Andy Warhol Catalogue Raisonné, of which Little Electric Chair (salmon) is one of them. The confusion lies in the acknowledged fact that a well-known Factory employee ran off a number of Little Electric Chair paintings without Warhol's permission. These, of course, cannot be considered authentic. However, there was also a group of six Little Electric Chairs, screened under Warhol's supervision, that left the Factory without his consent. Colors included: light blue, dark blue, red, lavender, silver, and salmon. Allegedly, an employee took them in a payment dispute, and then sold them in Chicago as a way to recover funds that he believed he was owed. Though this event happened so long ago that it would be hard to verify, the current owner of Little Electric Chair (salmon) presented enough credible evidence to validate it.

Andy Warhol
Little Electric Chair (dark blue), 1964-1965
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen
20" x 31"
Unsigned

Provenance:
Walter and Ann Nathan, Chicago (acquired circa 1972)

Comments:
There are a number of genuine Andy Warhol Little Electric Chairs, which are not included in the Andy Warhol Catalogue Raisonné, of which Little Electric Chair (dark blue) is one of them. The confusion lies in the acknowledged fact that a well-known Factory employee ran off a number of Little Electric Chair paintings without Warhol's permission. These, of course, cannot be considered authentic. However, there was also a group of six Little Electric Chairs, screened under Warhol's supervision, that left the Factory without his consent. Colors included: light blue, dark blue, red, lavender, silver, and salmon. Allegedly, an employee took them in a payment dispute, and then sold them in Chicago as a way to recover funds that he believed he was owed. Though this event happened so long ago that it would be hard to verify, the current owner of Little Electric Chair (dark blue) presented enough credible evidence to validate it.

Andy Warhol
Little Electric Chair (lavender), 1964-1965
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen
20" x 30"
Unsigned

Provenance:
Acquired from a Warhol studio assistant, 1972
Jim Faulkner, Chicago
Rhona Hoffman and John Jones, Chicago

Comments:
There are a number of genuine Andy Warhol Little Electric Chairs, which are not included in the Andy Warhol Catalogue Raisonné, of which Little Electric Chair (lavender) is one of them. The confusion lies in the acknowledged fact that a well-known Factory employee ran off a number of Little Electric Chair paintings without Warhol's permission. These, of course, cannot be considered authentic. However, there was also a group of six Little Electric Chairs, screened under Warhol's supervision, that left the Factory without his consent. Colors included: light blue, dark blue, red, lavender, silver, and salmon. Allegedly, an employee took them in a payment dispute, and then sold them in Chicago as a way to recover funds that he believed he was owed. Though this event happened so long ago that it would be hard to verify, the current owner of Little Electric Chair (lavender) presented enough credible evidence to validate it.

Campbell's Soup by Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol
Self-Portrait (red), 1965
(image conceived in 1964 and executed in 1965)
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen
20" x 16"

Provenance:
Richard Ekstract, New York (acquired directly from the artist in 1965)

Comments:
Self-Portrait (red) is one of approximately seven works from this series that were acquired through a trade with Warhol by magazine publisher Richard Ekstract — and then dispersed by him. The Andy Warhol Art Authentication Board rejected these paintings because they were created "off premises" at a silkscreen shop — under Warhol's approval and supervision — rather than in his studio. It is our belief that determining an authentic Andy Warhol comes down to the artist's intentions. Given Warhol's philosophy of detaching himself from the art making process, his relaxed approach to signing his paintings, and his desire to create work by functioning as an art director, Self-Portrait (red) should be considered a genuine Warhol.

It is also significant that one of the paintings from this group of Self-Portraits appeared on the cover of the first Andy Warhol Catalog Raisonné — known as the "Crone" book (published in 1970) — with Andy Warhol's consent. This painting was owned at one time by Bruno Bischofberger, and later Anthony d'Offay, two of Warhol's most important dealers. The painting currently resides with Mr. d'Offay in London.

Campbell's Soup by Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol
Self-Portrait (red), 1965
(image conceived in 1964 and executed in 1965)
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen
20" x 16"

Provenance:
Richard Ekstract, New York (acquired directly from the artist in 1965)
Daniel Templon Gallery, Paris
Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York
Aldis Browne Fine Arts, Venice
Richard Polsky Works of Art, Santa Monica
Lang & O'Hara Gallery, New York
Joe Simon, London

Comments:
This particular Self-Portrait is from Richard Ekstract's original group of approximately seven commissioned examples. It is significant to note that it bears an authentication signature from Fred Hughes, Warhol's highly esteemed business manager. When Warhol died, in 1987, Hughes, along with long-time office manager Vincent Fremont, took on the task of authenticating Warhol's work. Inundated with requests, they eventually formed the Andy Warhol Art Authentication Board (both Hughes and Fremont recused themselves from it).

Richard Ekstract originally commissioned this group of red Self-Portraits directly from Warhol, in an agreed upon trade, that was undertaken in good faith by both parties. The story of their execution is complex but completely in keeping with the artist's working methods. What is relevant is that these Self-Portraits were created from acetates provided by Warhol, screened by a printer of his choice who followed his directions, examined by him, and approved by him. This collaborative process was consistent with Warhol's philosophy of making art. It is our opinion that Andy Warhol intended for this group of seven Self-Portraits to be part of his oeuvre.

Campbell's Soup by Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol
Self-Portrait (red), 1965
(image conceived in 1964 and executed in 1965)
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen
20" x 16"

Provenance:
Richard Ekstract, New York (acquired directly from the artist in 1965)
Andrew Roman, New York
Robert E. Mearns, New York (acquired mid-1970s)
David L. Mearns, West Sussex, England and Susan Shaer, Englewood, N.J.

Comments:
This painting is part of the original group of seven red Self-Portraits commissioned in an agreed upon trade between Andy Warhol and Richard Ekstract. This particular painting was acquired by Robert Mearns, in the 1970s, in a trade with an antiques dealer for a Tiffany lamp. It's interesting to note that during this decade, Warhol Self-Portraits had only minimal value. Collectors preferred the Celebrity paintings like the Marilyns, Elvises, and Lizes. Thus, Mr. Mearns was able to acquire his painting for only a fraction of what would become its ultimate true value.

In our opinion, the seven Self-Portraits (red) and the other various color versions from the original 1964 series, along with the 1967 image of Warhol with his finger covering his mouth (known as the "Mum Voyeur"), and his 1986 "Fright Wigs," remain the artist's three most important photosilkscreen images of his own likeness.

Self Portrait (Mum Voyeur)

Andy Warhol
Marlon, 1966
Silkscreen ink on movie screen
53" x 41.5" (image size: 51" x 38")
Unsigned

Provenance:
Si Litvinoff, Watermill, New York (acquired directly from the artist)

Comments:
Marlon is an experimental painting — the only one known to have been screened directly onto a movie screen — created by Warhol as part of the small but significant "Marlon" series (including this painting there are nine known examples from 1966). There was also a lone painting, executed in 1963, titled Silver Marlon. The Marlon series is the last group of paintings from Warhol's classic "Celebrity" series.

The image of Marlon Brando is based on a film still from The Wild One. Other Celebrity portraits, and the film stills that they were derived from, include: Marilyn Monroe in Niagara, Elvis Presley in Flaming Star, and Elizabeth Taylor in Butterfly 8.

Marlon owes it history to an exchange made between Andy Warhol and Si Litvinoff, his attorney during the 1960s, for legal services. The deal was facilitated by Paul Morrissey, who collaborated with Warhol on the films that he produced during the Factory years. Less known is that Morrissey also served as Warhol's unofficial business manager from 1966-1973. In 1967, Fred Hughes began working for Warhol, gradually assuming Mr. Morrissey's duties. Ultimately, Hughes became Warhol's full-time business manager.

While this is strictly conjecture on the part of Richard Polsky Art Authentication, since Marlon was reproduced directly onto the surface of an actual beaded movie screen, the painting can be viewed as a possible reflection on Warhol's activities as a film director and producer.

Self Portrait (Mum Voyeur)

Andy Warhol
Self-Portrait (Mum Voyeur), 1967
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen
10" x 10" (each panel)
Signed (lower panel)

Note:
We are currently attempting to get a better photo of the painting.

Provenance:
Robert Kidd Gallery, Birmingham, Michigan
Ivan Karp, New York
Private Collection, New York

Comments:
In conversation with Ivan Karp, he explained that Self-Portrait (Mum Voyeur) owes its origin to the following: In 1967, an art professor from a small college in Michigan contacted Andy Warhol and told him that his class wanted to "make a Warhol." Andy responded by sending an acetate and step-by-step details on how to fabricate the painting. The class followed his instructions and completed the two panels. At their invitation, Warhol visited the school, examined the painting, and approved it by signing one of the panels. Or as Ivan Karp put it, "the signature was the confirming act." Karp also explained that the creation of Self-Portrait (Mum Voyeur) was entirely in keeping with the collaborative and experimental nature of Warhol's work. It should be noted that Karp's word carries significant weight, given that he was credited with discovering Warhol in 1962 and bringing his work to the art world's attention. Eventually, his support led to Andy Warhol's representation by the Leo Castelli Gallery in 1964.

Ivan Karp acquired the painting from the Robert Kidd Gallery in Birmingham, Michigan. Years later, Karp showed it to long-time Warhol employee Vincent Fremont. Along with Fred Hughes, he validated Warhol's work before there was an authentication committee. Fremont pronounced the painting genuine. However, not long after, the self-portrait was shown to the newly formed Andy Warhol Art Authentication Board, who turned it down. Karp was under the impression that it was denied because the picture was created off-premises. It is the opinion of Richard Polsky Art Authentication that Self-Portrait (Mum Voyeur) is a genuine Andy Warhol, based on our examination of the work, Karp's credibility, and Warhol's philosophy of painting.

Mona Lisa Four Times

Andy Warhol
Mona Lisa Four Times, circa 1978-79
Silkscreen ink on unprimed canvas
50.5" x 39.75"
Unsigned

Provenance:
Acquired directly from Andy Warhol studio, New York
Private Collection, New York
Grisebach, Berlin
Private Collection, Stockholm

Comments:
Mona Lisa Four Times is part of a sub-series of late "Mona Lisa" paintings. It owes its origin to the earlier Warhol painting Four Mona Lisas. In 1963, not long after Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa toured the United States, Warhol began a small series of paintings based on this international icon — arguably the most famous painting in the world. Warhol created a total of seven Mona Lisas, all of which were black and white, with the exception of the large canvas Colored Mona Lisas. One of the earliest buyers from the series was Dennis Hopper, who acquired Double Mona Lisa. The canvas Four Mona Lisas was a gift from Warhol to one of his biggest advocates, the curator Henry Geldzahler. He, in turn, donated the painting to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, where it currently resides.

Mona Lisa Four Times is part of Andy Warhol's first body of work which can be considered "art about art." In future years, Warhol would go on to create the series "After de Chirico," (1982), painted in homage to the Italian surrealist Giorgio de Chirico. This was followed by a series of images titled, "Details of Renaissance Paintings," (1984), including a close-up section of Sandro Botticelli's Birth of Venus. That same year, Warhol also completed a large group of works titled, "The Scream (after Munch)," which was a colorful interpretation of the famous painting The Scream, by the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch.